Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of incident users

CharacteristicsOverall incident usersNon-triple usersIMT users
Overall
n=13 451
BDP/FOR
n=6122
BUD/FOR
n=2703
Other ICS/LABA*
n=4626
Overall
n=7448
BDP/FOR n=3601BUD/FOR
n=1432
Other ICS/LABA*
n=2415
Overall
n=5162
BDP/FOR
n=2427
BUD/FOR
n=1056
Other ICS/LABA*
n=1679
Demographic characteristics
 Age at index, years, mean (SD)†68.7 (10.8)68.7 (10.8)68.6 (10.8)68.8 (10.7)68.5 (11.1)68.6 (11.1)68.3 (11.2)68.6 (10.9)67.6 (11.3)67.8 (11.3)67.5 (11.3)67.4 (11.1)
 Female, n (%)6046 (45.0)2818 (46.0)1214 (44.9)2014 (43.5)3436 (46.1)1683 (46.7)664 (46.4)1089 (45.1)2361 (45.7)1130 (46.6)460 (43.6)771 (45.9)
 Patient region, n (%)
  North East1262 (9.4)320 (5.2)624 (23.1)318 (6.9)564 (7.6)153 (4.3)273 (19.1)138 (5.7)425 (8.2)96 (4.0)211 (20.0)118 (7.0)
  North West2649 (19.7)1284 (21.0)439 (16.3)926 (20.0)1445 (19.4)718 (19.9)218 (15.2)509 (21.1)984 (19.1)472 (19.5)157 (14.9)355 (21.2)
  Yorkshire and The Humber530 (3.9)273 (4.5)57 (2.1)200 4.3)266 (3.6)142 (3.9)34 (2.4)90 (3.7)193 (3.7)103 (4.2)26 (2.5)64 (3.8)
  East Midlands412 (3.1)288 (4.7)72 (2.7)52 (1.1)260 (3.5)190 (5.3)46 (3.2)24 (1.0)143 (2.8)96 (4.0)30 (2.8)17 (1.0)
  West Midlands2397 (17.8)1312 (21.4)362 (13.4)723 (15.6)1394 (18.7)840 (23.3)192 (13.4)362 (15.0)988 (19.1)587 (24.2)140 (13.3)261 (15.6)
  East of England663 (4.9)297 (4.9)133 (4.9)233 (5.0)365 (4.9)160 (4.4)77 (5.4)128 (5.3)260 (5.0)114 (4.7)65 (6.2)81 (4.8)
  South West1567 (11.7)617 (10.1)295 (10.9)655 (14.2)912 (12.3)389 (10.8)179 (12.5)344 (14.3)633 (12.3)259 (10.7)124 (11.7)250 (14.9)
  South Central1623 (12.1)926 (15.1)173 (6.4)524 (11.3)876 (11.8)524 (14.6)92 (6.4)260 (10.8)600 (11.6)361 (14.9)67 (6.3)172 (10.3)
  London1435 (10.7)531 (8.7)360 (13.3)544 (11.8)861 (11.6)319 (8.9)217 (15.2)325 (13.5)585 (11.3)217 (8.9)161 (15.3)207 (12.3)
  South East Coast909 (6.8)273 (4.5)187 (6.9)449 (9.7)502 (6.7)166 (4.6)103 (7.2)233 (9.7)350 (6.8)122 (5.0)75 (7.1)153 (9.1)
 Socioeconomic status, IMD, n (%)
  Quintile 12110 (15.7)1024 (16.7)371 (13.7)715 (15.5)1234 (16.6)615 (17.1)212 (14.8)407 (16.9)819 (15.9)393 (16.2)161 (15.3)265 (15.8)
  Quintile 22325 (17.3)1047 (17.1)438 (16.2)840 (18.2)1300 (17.5)629 (17.5)238 (16.6)433 (18.0)903 (17.5)428 (17.6)180 (17.1)295 (17.6)
  Quintile 32587 (19.2)1157 (18.9)546 (20.2)884 (19.1)1476 (19.8)684 (19.0)318 (22.2)474 (19.7)1016 (19.7)465 (19.2)211 (20.0)340 (20.3)
  Quintile 42939 (21.9)1293 (21.1)621 (23.0)1025 (22.2)1567 (21.1)756 (21.0)304 (21.2)507 (21.0)1148 (22.2)532 (21.9)246 (23.3)370 (22.0)
  Quintile 53483 (25.9)1600 (26.1)725 (26.8)1158 (25.1)1867 (25.1)917 (25.5)359 (25.1)591 (24.5)1276 (24.7)609 (25.1)258 (24.4)409 (24.4)
Clinical characteristics
 BMI at index, kg/m2, mean (SD)
  n11 3125292227237486180305811951927414420028471295
  Mean (SD)27.8 (6.9)27.8 (6.8)27.7 (6.8)27.8 (7.1)27.9 (6.9)27.9 (6.8)27.7 (6.7)28.0 (7.3)27.7 (6.9)27.8 (6.8)27.3 (6.7)27.9 (7.0)
 Smoking status at index, n (%)
  Current smoker7149 (53.2)3248 (53.1)1464 (54.2)2437 (52.7)3911 (52.5)1884 (52.3)755 (52.7)1272 (52.7)2810 (54.4)1295 (53.4)565 (53.5)950 (56.6)
  Former smoker5951 (44.2)2717 (44.4)1172 (43.4)2062 (44.6)3298 (44.3)1609 (44.7)626 (43.7)1063 (44.0)2165 (41.9)1040 (42.9)455 (43.1)670 (39.9)
  Non-smokerNR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡NR‡ NR‡
  UnknownNR‡
 FEV1/FVC ratio, FEV1 %, mean (SD)
  n10 4084664207636685775275910911925402018887941338
  Mean (SD)58.6 (13.4)58.5 (13.4)59.3 (13.8)58.3 (13.3)59.9 (12.8)59.8 (12.8)61.2 (12.9)59.4 (12.8)59.0 (12.7)59.2 (12.8)59.5 (13.5)58.5 (12.3)
 % predicted FEV1, mean (SD)§
  n99794619200933515468271010371721376618297651172
  Mean (SD)58.9 (18.4)59.1 (18.4)58.5 (18.5)59.0 (18.2)60.9 (18.3)60.9 (18.3)60.4 (18.4)61.1 (18.2)59.9 (18.4)60.1 (18.2)58.6 (18.9)60.4 (18.3)
 Category, n (%)
  GOLD 1: FEV1 % predicted ≥80%1410 (14.1)674 (14.6)269 (13.4)467 (13.9)895 (16.4)446 (16.5)160 (15.4)289 (16.8)573 (15.2)269 (14.7)109 (14.25)195 (16.6)
  GOLD 2: FEV1 % predicted ≥50%–<80%5359 (53.7)2480 (53.7)1072 (53.4)1807 (53.9)3053 (55.8)1530 (56.5)576 (55.5)947 (55.0)2037 (54.1)1025 (56.0)391 (51.11)621 (53.0)
  GOLD 3: FEV1 % predicted ≥30%–<50%2749 (27.6)1248 (27.0)566 (28.2)935 (27.9)1309 (23.9)631 (23.3)257 (24.8)421 (24.5)998 (26.5)466 (25.5)221 (28.89)311 (26.5)
  GOLD 4: FEV1 % predicted <30%461 (4.6)217 (4.7)102 (5.1)142 (4.2)211 (3.9)103 (3.8)44 (4.2)64 (3.7)158 (4.2)69 (3.8)44 (5.75)45 (3.8)
 MRC Dyspnoea Scale score, n (%)
  1†1748 (13.0)817 (13.4)345 (12.8)586 (12.7)1120 (15.0)536 (14.9)227 (15.9)357 (14.8)782 (15.2)353 (14.5)179 (17.0)250 (14.9)
  24803 (35.7)2200 (35.9)969 (35.9)1634 (35.3)2595 (34.8)1263 (35.1)499 (34.9)833 (34.5)1467 (28.4)724 (29.8)293 (27.8)450 (26.8)
  32927 (21.8)1306 (21.3)586 (21.7)1035 (22.4)1329 (17.8)635 (17.6)248 (17.3)446 (18.5)662 (12.8)311 (12.8)131 (12.4)220 (13.1)
  41028 (7.6)454 (7.4)203 (7.5)371 (8.0)403 (5.4)203 (5.6)68 (4.8)132 (5.5)190 (3.7)100 (4.1)33 (3.1)57 (3.4)
  5¶157 (1.2)84 (1.4)22 (0.8)51 (1.1)56 (0.8)36 (1.0)7 (0.5)13 (0.5)29 (0.6)16 (0.7)6 (0.6)7 (0.4)
  Unknown2788 (20.7)1261 (20.6)578 (21.4)949 (20.5)1945 (26.1)928 (25.8)383 (26.8)634 (26.5)2032 (39.4)923 (38.0)414 (39.2)695 (41.4)
 Number of comorbidities, mean (SD)1.9 (1.5)1.8 (1.5)1.8 (1.5)1.9 (1.5)1.9 (1.5)1.9 (1.5)1.8 (1.5)1.9 (1.5)1.8 (1.5)1.8 (1.5)1.7 (1.5)1.8 (1.5)
 Comorbidities, n (%)
  Depression5647 (42.0)2509 (41.0)1170 (43.3)1968 (42.5)3123 (41.9)1474 (40.9)611 (42.7)1038 (43.0)2097 (40.6)966 (39.8)422 (40.0)709 (42.2)
  Anxiety3648 (27.1)1681 (27.5)725 (26.8)1242 (26.6)2041 (27.4)995 (27.6)379 (26.5)667 (27.6)1365 (26.4)639 (26.3)262 (24.8)464 (27.6)
  Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease3119 (23.2)1445 (23.6)603 (22.3)1071 (23.2)1791 (24.1)871 (24.2)319 (22.3)601 (24.9)1159 (22.5)563 (23.2)218 (20.6)378 (22.5)
  Acute myocardial infarction1565 (11.6)705 (11.5)294 (10.9)566 (12.2)845 (11.4)407 (11.3)165 (11.5)273 (11.3)556 (10.8)253 (10.4)119 (11.3)184 (11.0)
  Congestive heart failure1788 (13.3)785 (12.8)350 (13.0)653 (14.1)970 (13.0)447 (12.4)182 (12.7)341 (14.1)631 (12.2)272 (11.2)129 (12.2)230 (13.7)
  Stroke1655 (12.3)743 (12.1)335 (12.4)577 (12.5)914 (12.3)440 (12.2)174 (12.2)300 (12.4)607 (11.8)290 (12.0)122 (11.6)195 (11.6)
  Bronchiectasis483 (3.6)221 (3.6)91 (3.4)171 (3.7)273 (3.7)136 (3.8)50 (3.5)87 (3.6)162 (3.1)75 (3.1)34 (3.2)53 (3.2)
  Dementia/cognitive impairment1481 (11.0)686 (11.2)255 (9.4)540 (11.7)841 (11.3)414 (11.5)135 (9.4)292 (12.1)527 (10.2)249 (10.3)93 (8.8)185 (11.0)
  Rheumatoid/osteoarthritis5498 (40.9)2490 (40.7)1108 (41.0)1900 (41.1)3093 (41.5)1486 (41.3)583 (40.7)1024 (42.4)2018 (39.1)950 (39.1)389 (36.8)679 (40.4)
 Current asthma diagnosis, n (%)§2797 (20.8)1429 (23.3)509 (18.8)859 (18.6)1884 (25.3)1002 (27.8)316 (22.1)566 (23.4)1436 (27.8)768 (31.6)244 (23.1)424 (25.3)
 Historical asthma diagnosis, n (%)§3545 (26.4)1701 (27.8)684 (25.3)1160 (25.1)2168 (29.1)1085 (30.1)403 (28.1)680 (28.2)1466 (28.4)741 (30.5)270 (25.6)455 (27.1)
 AECOPD in the 12 months prior to index
  Moderate-to-severe
  Patients with ≥1 AECOPD, n (%)5717 (42.5)2543 (41.5)1085 (40.1)2089 (45.2)2886 (38.8)1379 (38.3)517 (36.1)990 (41.0)1920 (37.2)892 (36.8)367 (34.8)661 (39.4)
  Mean AECOPD per patient‡ (SD)0.7 (1.0)0.7 (1.0)0.6 (0.9)0.7 (1.0)0.6 (0.9)0.6 (0.9)0.5 (0.9)0.6 (0.9)0.5 (0.8)0.5 (0.9)0.5 (0.8)0.6 (0.9)
 Moderate
  Patients with ≥1 AECOPD, n (%)4686 (34.8)2079 (34.0)888 (32.9)1719 (37.2)2424 (32.6)1140 (31.7)444 (31.0)840 (34.8)1576 (30.5)730 (30.1)294 (27.8)552 (32.9)
  Mean AECOPD per patient‡ (SD)0.5 (0.9)0.5 (0.9)0.5 (0.8)0.5 (0.9)0.5 (0.8)0.5 (0.9)0.4 (0.8)0.5 (0.8)0.4 (0.8)0.4 (0.8)0.4 (0.7)0.5 (0.8)
 Severe
  Patients with ≥1 AECOPD, n (%)1596 (11.9)711 (11.6)307 (11.4)578 (12.5)680 (9.1)353 (9.8)107 (7.5)220 (9.1)472 (9.1)224 (9.2)96 (9.1)152 (9.1)
  Mean AECOPD per patient‡ (SD)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.4)0.2 (0.3)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.3)0.1 (0.4)0.1 (0.3)0.1 (0.3)0.1 (0.3)0.1 (0.3)
 GOLD 2019 group, n (%)
  A3832 (34.7)1830 (36.3)799 (36.4)1203 (31.7)2327 (40.6)1168 (41.7)469 (43.0)690 (37.5)1449 (43.2)720 (44.5)310 (45.3)419 (39.9)
  B2283 (20.7)1041 (20.6)463 (21.1)779 (20.5)1038 (18.1)511 (18.3)190 (17.4)337 (18.3)525 (15.7)262 (16.2)102 (14.9)161 (15.3)
  C1763 (16.0)754 (15.0)355 (16.2)654 (17.3)930 (16.2)403 (14.4)189 (17.3)338 (18.4)552 (16.5)237 (14.7)123 (18.0)192 (18.3)
  D3155 (28.6)1419 (28.1)580 (26.4)1156 (30.5)1436 (25.1)717 (25.6)242 (22.2)477 (25.9)827 (24.7)398 (24.6)150 (21.9)279 (26.6)
 Eosinophil count, 109 cells/L, mean (SD)
  n720032611474246541011975799132728791349601929
  Mean (SD)0.24 (0.16)0.24 (0.16)0.23 (0.16)0.24 (0.16)0.24 (0.16)0.24 (0.16)0.23 (0.16)0.24 (0.16)0.24 (0.16)0.23 (0.16)0.23 (0.16)0.24 (0.16)
  • Values of ‘n’ are indicated in italics to differentiate from the Mean (SD).

  • *Included fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate and fluticasone furoate/vilanterol.

  • †Not troubled by breathlessness except on strenuous exercise.

  • ‡Included all patients with or without ≥1 AECOPD; results based on small numbers of patients (n<5) were suppressed, as well as related values to protect primary suppression.

  • §Current and historical asthma were not mutually exclusive.

  • ¶Too breathless to leave the house or breathless when dressing/undressing.

  • AECOPD, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BDP, beclomethasone dipropionate; BMI, body mass index; BUD, budesonide; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FOR, formoterol; FVC, forced vital capacity; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; IMT, initial maintenance therapy; LABA, long-acting β2-agonist; MRC, Medical Research Council; NR, not reported; SD, standarad deviation.