Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants by treatment level

TotalTreatment level
AmbulatoryInpatientICUP value
No1643210329
Gender—male (%)90 (55)11 (34)57 (55)22 (76)0.005
Age—mean (SD)60 (14)51 (12)63 (14)60 (11)0.0001
BMI—mean (SD)32 (6.5)31 (7.2)31 (6.2)33 (6.9)0.63
Smoking history0.20
 Never (%)74 (45)14 (44)46 (45)14 (48)
 Under 20 pack-years (%)29 (18)10 (31)14 (14)5 (17)
 Over 20 pack-years (%)61 (37)8 (25)43 (42)10 (35)
History of type 2 diabetes21 (13)2 (6)13 (13)6 (21)0.29
History of any lung disease43 (26)9 (28)28 (27)6 (21)0.79
History of hypertension67 (41)6 (19)46 (45)15 (52)0.01
Chest CT changes
 CT-score during acute illness (mean (SD))14 (6.0)8.5 (12)13 (5.5)18 (4.9)<0.0001
 CT score at follow-up (mean (SD))6.5 (6.3)1.3 (2.3)6.5 (5.0)12 (8.0)<0.0001
 Reticular changes at follow-up (%)39 (24)1 (3)28 (27)10 (36)0.002
 Subpleural banding at follow-up (%)56 (34)2 (6)37 (36)17 (61)<0.0001
mMRC score (%)0.55
 056 (37)15 (52)32 (33)9 (35)
 158 (38)11 (38)35 (37)12 (46)
 229 (19)2 (6.9)23 (23)4 (15)
 37 (4.6)1 (3.4)5 (5.2)1 (3.8)
 42 (1.3)0 (0.0)2 (2.1)0 (0.0)
Pulmonary function testing
 FVC <80% N (%)19 (11.7)2 (6.5)10 (9.8)7 (24)0.09
 FEV1<80% N (%)16 (9.9)2 (6.5)10 (9.8)4 (14)0.60
 FEV1/FVC <70% N (%)24 (15)5 (16)18 (18)1 (3.4)0.16
 DLCO<70% N (%)36 (23)0 (0)24 (24)12 (43)<0.0001
 SpO2 <92% N (%)10 (6.4)2 (6.2)5 (5.2)3 (11)0.52
 FVC <80% and FEV1/FVC >70% N (%)14 (8.6)1 (3.2)6 (5.9)7 (24)0.01
 FVC <80%, FEV1/FVC >70% and DLCO<70% N (%)7 (4.3)0 (0)1 (1.0)6 (21)0.0002
  • BMI, body mass index; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; ICU, intensive care unit; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council.