Table 1

Baseline characteristics of all participants

Intervention (n=97)Control (96)Overall (193)
Gender: male, n (%)52 (53.6)53 (55.2)105 (54.4)
Age: mean (SD)69.6 (8.1)70.5 (8.4)70.1 (8.2)
Ethnicity: white, n (%)86 (88.7)89 (92.7)175 (90.7)
BMI: mean (SD)27.1 (5.0)27.7 (5.8)27.5 (5.4)
Marital status: married, n (%)51 (52.6)53 (55.2)104 (53.9)
Employment status: n (%)
 Full-time12 (12.4)9 (9.4)21 (10.9)
 Part-time7 (7.2)7 (7.3)14 (7.3)
 Retired66 (68)71 (74)137 (71)
FEV1: mean (SD)1.7 (0.6)1.7 (0.6)1.7 (0.6)
FVC: mean (SD)2.9 (0.8)2.8 (0.9)2.9 (0.8)
FEV1/FVC: mean (SD)0.6 (0.1)0.6 (0.1)0.6 (0.1)
Gold stage: n (%)
 I19 (19.6)19 (19.8)38 (19.7)
 II53 (54.6)57 (59.4)110 (57)
 III15 (15.5)15 (15.6)30 (15.5)
 IV3 (3.1)2 (2.1)5 (2.6)
Medical Research Council (MRC) Grade: median (IQR)2 (2–3)2 (2–3)2 (2–3)
Smoking status: n (%)
 Current smoker13 (13.4)15 (15.6)28 (14.5)
 Ex-smoker67 (69.1)68 (70.8)135 (69.9)
 Never smoked4 (4.1)8 (8.3)12 (6.2)
 Pack years: mean (SD)39.5 (25.7)34.4 (27.0)36.8 (26.4)
Comorbidities: n (%)
 Ischaemic heart disease7 (7.2)10 (10.4)17 (8.8)
 Hypertension41 (42.3)46 (47.9)87 (45.1)
 Diabetes13 (13.4)13 (13.5)26 (13.5)
 Heart failure1 (1.0)3 (3.1)4 (2.1)
 Arthritis24 (24.7)35 (36.5)59 (30.6)
 Other21 (21.6)22 (22.9)43 (22.3)
 None13 (13.4)11 (11.5)24 (12.4)
  • BMI, body mass index; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity.