Table 5

Univariable and multivariable analysis to identify the factors causing discordance in FVC and FEV1 interpretation defined as abnormal (<LLN) in Canadian reference equations and normal (‚Č•LLN) in GLI-Race*

VariablesUnivariable analysisMultivariable analysis
OR(95% CI)POR(95% CI)P
A) FVC
SexFemaleRefRef
Male3.32(1.85 to 6.18)<0.0012.89(1.24 to 6.92)0.015
Age0.997(0.98 to 1.02)0.780.99(0.97 to 1.01)0.46
Height1.03(0.998 to 1.06)0.0661.02(0.97 to 1.07)0.44
Weight1.002(0.99 to 1.01)0.770.999(0.98 to 1.02)0.89
Race/ethnicity<0.001<0.001
CaucasianRefRef
Black15.36(5.49 to 43.94)<0.00119.19(6.48 to 59.10)<0.001
NEA1.62(0.24 to 6.38)0.551.51(0.22 to 6.53)0.62
SEA4.27(2.06 to 9.05)<0.0014.93(2.04 to 12.42)0.001
Mixed/Other4.52(1.82 to 10.94)0.0014.06(1.53 to 10.63)0.004
B) FEV1
SexFemaleRefRef
Male0.83(0.44 to 1.51)0.540.40(0.16 to 0.95)0.042
Age0.996(0.98 to 1.02)0.731.003(0.98 to 1.03)0.80
Height1.005(0.97 to 1.04)0.731.05(0.998 to 1.11)0.061
Weight1.001(0.99 to 1.01)0.881.002(0.99 to 1.02)0.77
Race/ethnicity<0.001<0.001
CaucasianRefRef
Black15.36(5.49 to 43.94)<0.00115.96(5.62 to 46.52)<0.001
NEA0.77(0.041 to 4.14)0.801.22(0.064 to 7.14)0.86
SEA3.23(1.51 to 7.02)0.0035.85(2.31 to 15.40)<0.001
Mixed/Other3.41(1.28 to 8.58)0.0105.04(1.77 to 13.93)0.002
  • *We analysed the data by classifying Asian participants as NE Asian (model 1) if they could not be classified clearly as either NE Asian or SE Asian.

  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; NEA, North East Asian; SEA, South East Asian.