Table 3

Weighted prospective associations between wave 2 past 30-day tobacco use and new-onset asthma diagnosis at waves 3 or 4 of the PATH Study*

Risk factor at wave 2N†US population %New-onset asthma diagnosis %Models predicting asthma
Model 1
Combustible versus non-combustible tobacco use
Model 2
Specific tobacco products used
Adjusted RR‡95% CIAdjusted RR‡95% CI
Past 30-day tobacco use
 Combustible versus non-combustible tobacco use
  Never used tobacco175530.90.8§RefRef
  Formerly used tobacco276233.71.11.390.63 to 3.07
  Non-combustible use only3453.11.2§1.550.34 to 7.07
  Any combustible use397332. to 2.79
 Specific tobacco products used
   Yes276233.71.11.360.70 to 2.63
   Yes318325.91.10.990.53 to 1.86
   Yes137110.51.51.440.77 to 2.72
   Yes8356.11.51.350.65 to 2.80
   Yes11359. to 2.51
   Yes4924.30.9§0.970.29 to 3.28
Other smoke-related exposures
  Cigarette pack-years
  (per each 5 pack-years)
88351.060.83 to 1.371.090.84 to 1.41
  Past-week SHS exposure
  (per each 5 hours/week)
88350.980.91 to 1.060.980.91 to 1.06
 Past-month marijuana use¶
  Yes187914. to 1.841.050.66 to 1.69
Relevant medical history
 Body mass index
  Underweight2942.90.8§0.820.24 to 2.870.820.24 to 2.83
  Overweight251030. to to 2.09
  Class 1 obese13,0314.51.01.300.67 to 2.511.300.67 to 2.52
  Class 2+ obese97911. to 5.863.111.66 to 5.82
  • Online supplemental table 10 reports SEs for all the weighted estimates presented in this table and adjusted RRs for all the variables in the model.

  • *N=8835 wave 2 adult (age 18–39) respondents never diagnosed with asthma, without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or other non-asthma respiratory diseases at waves 2–4, with wave 4 PATH Study longitudinal (all waves) weights, and complete data on all analytical variables.

  • †Unweighted.

  • ‡All RRs adjust for the variables in the table plus age, sex, ethnicity/race, education and lives in an urban area. Bold RRs are statistically significant at p<0.05.

  • §Estimate should be interpreted with caution because it has low statistical precision. It is based on a denominator sample size of less than 50, or the coefficient of variation of the estimate or its complement is larger than 30%.

  • ¶Marijuana use variable does not distinguish between combustible and non-combustible use.

  • PATH, Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health; RRs, risk ratios; SHS, secondhand smoke.