Table 3

Risk of corticosteroid treatment failure across blood eosinophil percentage and smoking status

Case, n (%)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Multiadjusted OR (95% CI)
Treatment failure
 Non-smoker
  EOS <2%184 (35.5)ReferenceReference
  EOS ≥2%92 (24.8)0.60 (0.44 to 0.80)0.70 (0.52 to 0.96)
 Smoker
  EOS <2%439 (31.9)0.85 (0.69 to 1.05)0.82 (0.64 to 1.05)
  EOS ≥2%243 (21.4)0.50 (0.39 to 0.62)0.62 (0.47 to 0.81)
Length of stay ≥14 days
 Non-smoker
  EOS <2%135 (26.1)ReferenceReference
  EOS ≥2%67 (18.1)0.62 (0.45 to 0.87)0.72 (0.51 to 1.01)
 Smoker
  EOS <2%339 (24.6)0.92 (0.73 to 1.17)0.94 (0.72 to 1.22)
  EOS ≥2%177 (15.6)0.52 (0.41 to 0.68)0.67 (0.50 to 0.89)
Transfer to ICU
 Non-smoker
  EOS <2%38 (7.3)ReferenceReference
  EOS ≥2%5 (1.4)0.17 (0.07 to 0.44)0.23 (0.09 to 0.61)
 Smoker
  EOS <2%72 (5.2)0.70 (0.46 to 1.05)0.83 (0.51 to 1.35)
  EOS ≥2%13 (1.2)0.15 (0.08 to 0.28)0.29 (0.14 to 0.59)
Invasive mechanical ventilation
 Non-smoker
  EOS <2%13 (2.5)ReferenceReference
  EOS ≥2%2 (0.5)0.21 (0.05 to 0.94)0.33 (0.07 to 1.50)
 Smoker
  EOS <2%25 (1.8)0.72 (0.36 to 1.41)0.86 (0.39 to 1.88)
  EOS ≥2%5 (0.4)0.17 (0.06 to 0.48)0.38 (0.12 to 1.18)
Incident pneumonia during hospitalisation
 Non-smoker
  EOS <2%16 (3.1)ReferenceReference
  EOS ≥2%18 (4.8)1.60 (0.80 to 3.18)1.57 (0.78 to 3.15)
 Smoker
  EOS <2%43 (3.1)1.01 (0.56 to 1.81)0.76 (0.40 to 1.42)
  EOS ≥2%31 (2.7)0.88 (0.48 to 1.62)0.68 (0.35 to 1.34)
Death during hospitalisation or within 30 days after discharge
 Non-smoker
  EOS <2%19 (3.7)ReferenceReference
  EOS ≥2%3 (0.8)0.21 (0.06 to 0.73)0.25 (0.07 to 0.90)
 Smoker
  EOS <2%38 (2.8)0.74 (0.42 to 1.30)0.97 (0.50 to 1.87)
  EOS ≥2%9 (0.8)0.21 (0.09 to 0.47)0.51 (0.21 to 1.24)
AECOPD readmission within 30 days after discharge
 Non-smoker
  EOS <2%36 (7.0)ReferenceReference
  EOS ≥2%9 (2.4)0.33 (0.16 to 0.70)0.42 (0.20 to 0.88)
 Smoker
  EOS <2%59 (4.3)0.60 (0.39 to 0.92)0.50 (0.31 to 0.81)
  EOS ≥2%49 (4.3)0.60 (0.39 to 0.94)0.67 (0.40 to 1.12)
  • Adjusted for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, number of AECOPD hospitalisations in the previous year, white blood cell count and antibiotics use.

  • AECOPD, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; EOS, eosinophil percentage; ICU, intensive unit.