Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Crude dataMatching weights
VariableTotal (n=447)Ever-smoker (n=126)Non-smoker (n=321)P valueUnadjusted
absolute SMD
Ever- smoker (n=115.1)Non-smoker (n=116.3)Adjusted
absolute
SMD
Age (years), median (IQR)50 (39.5–58)48 (39–57.8)50 (40–58.)0.3800.07347 (38–57)47 (39 to 6.556)0.006
Male, n (%)328 (73.4)123 (96.7)205 (63.9))<0.0010.947112.1 (97.4)113.5 (97.6)0.014
Weight (kg), median (IQR)70 (70–80)70 (70–80)72 (70–80.0)0.2660.15670 (70–80)70 (70 to 80)0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2), median (IQR)25.7 (24.2–29.6)24.8 (24.2–27.8)25.7 (24.2–31.1)0.0720.24124.6 (24.2–27.7)25.1 (24.2 to 27.9)0.026
Medical history, n (%)
Diabetes166 (37.1)37 (29.4)129 (40.2)0.0430.22934.1 (29.6)34.4 (29.6)<0.001
Hypertension145 (32.4)35 (27.8)110 (34.3)0.2280.14131.0 (26.9)29.6 (25.5)0.033
Dyslipidaemia27 (6.0)7 (5.6)20 (6.2)0.9610.0296.8 (5.9)7.2 (6.2)0.013
Chronic kidney disease16 (3.6)3 (2.4)13 (4.0)0.5680.0953.0 (2.6)2.7 (2.3)0.021
Cardiovascular disease28 (6.3)10 (7.9)18 (5.6)0.4860.0938.3 (7.2)8.1 (6.9)0.009
Respiratory disease18 (4.0)6 (4.8)12 (3.7)0.8200.0513.6 (3.1)3.5 (3.0)0.006
Atrial fibrillation1 (0.2)0 (0.0)1 (0.3)1.0000.0790.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)<0.001
Thromboembolism2 (0.4)1 (0.8)1 (0.3)1.0000.0650.4 (0.3)0.4 (0.3)0.001
Liver disease1 (0.2)1 (0.8)0 (0.0)0.6270.1260.0 (0.0)0.4 (0.3)<0.001
Cancer5 (1.1)2 (1.6)3 (0.9)0.9280.0591.3 (1.2)1.4 (1.2)0.003
Medications, n (%)
ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker5 (4.0)21 (6.5)0.4110.1165.0 (4.3)5.4 (4.6)0.014
Aspirin20 (4.5)7 (5.6)13 (4.0)0.6610.0705.4 (4.7)5.3 (4.6)0.005
Other antiplatelet therapy9 (2.0)3 (2.4)6 (1.9)0.0350.0352.3 (2.0)2.7 (2.3)0.020
Statin34 (7.6)11 (8.7)23 (7.2)0.7160.05810.2 (8.9)10.7 (9.2)0.011
Insulin27 (6.0)4 (3.2)23 (7.2)0.1700.1814.0 (3.5)4.2 (3.6)0.006
Beta blocker26 (5.8)6 (4.8)20 (6.2)0.7100.0645.9 (5.1)5.9 (5.0)0.004
Calcium channel blocker36 (8.1)10 (7.9)26 (8.1)1.0000.0068.4 (7.3)8.9 (7.7)0.016
Thiazide diuretics7 (1.6)3 (2.4)4 (1.2)0.6560.0852.4 (2.1)2.0 (1.7)0.030
Loop diuretics5 (1.1)1 (0.8)4 (1.2)1.0000.0451.0 (0.9)0.5 (0.4)0.054
DOAC2 (0.4)1 (0.8)1 (0.3)1.0000.0650.4 (0.3)0.0 (0.0)0.075
Inhaled corticosteroid6 (1.3)2 (1.6)4 (1.2)1.0000.0291.2 (1.0)1.1 (1.0)0.003
Oral corticosteroids1 (0.2)0 (0.0)1 (0.3)1.0000.0790.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)<0.001
Inpatient regimens, n (%)
Supportive care100 (22.4)23 (18.3)77 (24.0)0.2370.14120.9 (18.2)22.2 (19.0)0.023
Azithromycin4 (0.9)0 (0.0)4 (1.2)0.4840.1590.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)<0.001
Favipiravir134 (30.0)41 (32.5)93 (29.0)0.5310.07735.4 (30.4)35.2 (30.6)0.003
Hydroxychloroquine50 (11.2)15 (11.9)35 (10.9)0.8920.03215.0 (13.0)15.4 (13.2)0.005
Lopinavir/ritonavir+interferon B+ribavirin22 (4.9)8 (6.3)14 (4.4)0.5280.0887.2 (6.3)7.6 (6.5)0.009
Lopinavir/ritonavir44 (9.8)12 (9.5)32 (10.0)1.0000.01511.9 (10.3)11.7 (10.1)0.008
Remdesivir7 (1.6)0 (0.0)7 (2.2)0.2120.2110.0 (0.0)2.0 (1.7)0.186
Interferon B4 (0.9)1 (0.8)3 (0.9)1.0000.0151.0 (0.9)0.9 (0.8)0.012
Tocilizumab3 (0.7)0 (0.0)3 (0.9)0.6560.1370.0 (0.0)0.0 (0.0)<0.001
Intravenous steroids252 (56.4)69 (54.8)183 (57.0)0.7450.04563.3 (55.0)63.3 (54.5)0.011
  • Cardiovascular disease: myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke or transient ischaemic stroke, history of a cerebrovascular accident with minor or no residual and transient ischaemic attacks, history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery, history of percutaneous coronary intervention and unstable angina. Respiratory disease: asthma or chronic obstructive disease. Cancer: solid or haematologic tumor. No missing data.

  • Conventional current smoker (n=33, 7.4%), conventional former smoker (n=92, 20.6%), current electronic vape smoker (n=1, 0.2%) and former electronic vape smoker (n=0, 0.0%).

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; DOAC, direct oral anti coagulants; SMD, standardised mean difference.