Table 1

Characteristics of participants by lung function status

TotalNormal lung functionPRISmCOPD
N*(%)N*(%)N*(%)N*(%)
461 031(100.0)358 755(77.8)65 781(14.3)36 495(7.9)
Age20–39239 283(51.9)207 047(57.7)17 563(26.7)14 673(40.2)
40–59158 298(34.3)117 975(32.9)28 406(43.2)11 917(32.7)
60 or above63 450(13.8)33 733(9.4)19 812(30.1)9905(27.1)
GenderMen225 587(48.9)178 160(49.7)28 853(43.9)18 574(50.9)
Women235 444(51.1)180 595(50.3)36 928(56.1)17 921(49.1)
EducationMiddle school or below88 366(25.0)57 273(19.7)24 577(50.9)6516(45.7)
High school81 725(23.1)68 519(23.6)10 055(20.8)3151(22.1)
Junior college69 955(19.8)62 019(21.3)6004(12.4)1932(13.5)
College or above113 121(32.0)102 773(35.4)7688(15.9)2660(18.7)
Smoking statusNever-smoker241 874(69.9)199 917(70.0)33 466(71.2)8491(63.2)
Ex-smoker22 879(6.6)18 524(6.5)3148(6.7)1207(9.0)
Current smoker81 120(23.5)66 961(23.5)10 418(22.2)3741(27.8)
Drinking statusNon-drinker266 918(78.7)221 936(79.2)35 475(77.7)9507(71.4)
Occasional drinker39 478(11.6)32 820(11.7)4689(10.3)1969(14.8)
Regular drinker32 641(9.6)25 300(9.0)5510(12.1)1831(13.8)
Body mass index<18.533 308(7.2)26 577(7.4)4406(6.7)2325(6.4)
18.5~24293 049(63.6)234 579(65.4)35 026(53.3)23 444(64.3)
25~29114 257(24.8)83 464(23.3)21 552(32.8)9241(25.3)
>3020 299(4.4)14 086(3.9)4739(7.2)1474(4.0)
Physical activityInactive181 794(51.1)148 488(50.9)26 108(53.1)7198(49.9)
Low85 563(24.1)72 244(24.7)10 051(20.4)3268(22.7)
Moderate53 494(15.0)43 729(15.0)7664(15.6)2101(14.6)
High21 816(6.1)17 013(5.8)3565(7.2)1238(8.6)
Very high12 955(3.6)10 514(3.6)1819(3.7)622(4.3)
HypertensionNone367 272(79.7)298 479(83.2)42 021(63.9)26 772(73.4)
Yes93 759(20.3)60 276(16.8)23 760(36.1)9723(26.6)
DiabetesNone435 832(94.5)343 469(95.7)58 235(88.5)34 128(93.5)
Yes25 199(5.5)15 286(4.3)7546(11.5)2367(6.5)
  • *N, Number of participants.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; PRISm, preserved ratio impaired spirometry.